QoS ‘Quality of Service’ in GPRS

QoS refers to ‘Quality of Service’. After ‘PDP context activation’ procedure completes, a ‘PDP context’ shall exist on the MS, the SGSN, and the GGSN. In addition, the GGSN assigns […]

Combined Attach procedure in GPRS

‘Combined Attach’ means the MS is making an attach to the CS and PS domains in the same time. And this will save the radio resources of the network. This […]

PMM state transition in 3G

The PMM state are the Mobility management state for the MM context exist on the MS and on the SGSN after the ‘GPRS attach’ procedure completed. Please take into consideration […]

GPRS MM states

What is Mobility Management states in GPRS

The GPRS Mobility Management determines if the user equipment is registered to the network or not. In another words, it defines if the network knows about the presence of the […]

Routing Area Update ‘RAU’ in GPRS

Types of Routing Area Update ‘RAU’ Intra-SGSN RAU The Intra SGSN RAU occurs when the MS moves from one RA to another RA, and both RAs exist under the same […]

GPRS attach

Your reference for GPRS Attach Procedure

GPRS Attach procedure is the procedure in which the MS registers to the network. In other words, the network knows about the existence of the MS. After completing the process […]

Gn Interface and Gp Interface

Gn/Gp interface, is the interface between the SGSNs and the GGSNs. ‘Gn interface’ is the interface between the SGSNs and the GGSNs when they exist within the same mobile network.  […]

Your Guide for Roaming architecture in GPRS

To understand Roaming architecture in GPRS, there are a few terms we have to understand, Outbound roaming The outbound roaming user simply means that you are travelling outside your country, […]

What is PDP, and Attach in GPRS

What is PDP To know what is ‘PDP’, we should know that in order for an MS to be able to send and receive data to and from the PDN, […]

GPRS network architecture

SGSN, GGSN – GPRS network architecture

GPRS refers to ‘General Packet Radio Service’. The GPRS network aims to transfer data and signaling in an efficient manner, and optimize the use of network and radio resources. GPRS […]

5G Technology – New Radio (NR)

5G technology provides higher throughput, with low latency and more communication reliability, for the communication between end devices. 5G Technology – New Radio (NR) In order for 5G technology to […]

5G Introduction

In this post we will discuss 5G Introduction. 5G is the fifth generation mobile network. It enables higher data rates for users with less latency compared to previous generations. In […]

What is Tracking Area in LTE ?

Here, we will discuss the Location identifiers in LTE mobile network, including the mobile operator identifier, the Tracking Area identifier, and the Cell identifier. In LTE mobile network, every eNB […]

Offline Charging vs. Online Charging in LTE

The type of charging in LTE mobile network, may be Offline Charging or Online Charging. The main difference between the two types, is whether the charging can affect the user […]

Your Guide to LTE Interfaces

Let’s talk about LTE Interfaces. In LTE, every interface between two network nodes, is having an interface name, that represents the protocols used in the communication between those nodes. Below […]

VoLTE (Voice over LTE) Introduction

While the UE attached to LTE network, the UE can initiate, or receive a voice or a video call. The UE achieves this, by connecting to an external network, which […]

What is an ‘EPS Bearer’ in LTE ?

During ‘LTE attach’ procedure, the network establishes this EPS Bearer between the UE and the PGW. The PGW assigns an IP address for this Bearer. The UE uses this IP […]

Your Guide for LTE Attach procedure

After the LTE Attach Procedure ends, the following should be accomplished, The MME assigns the UE a GUTI. An EPS Bearer should be created between the UE and the PGW. […]

LTE (4G) Network Architecture

LTE network nodes LTE refers to ‘Long Term Evolution’, and the architecture of the LTE network is as following, eNodeB The eNodeB is the 4G site that the UE connects […]

Gr interface and Gs interface

The Gr interface exists between the SGSN and the HLR. While the Gs interface exists between the SGSN and the MSC/VLR. Both of those interfaces are based on the ‘SS7’ […]