5G Network Slicing means that, to divide the physical network that the operator is having, into different logical networks with different characteristics.
Every logical network, is a network slice. And every network slice has different characteristics from the other network slices, so that it can serve a certain type of services accordingly.
Every network function in the network, can serve in one or more network slices according to operator configurations.
5G network is serving a wide variety of services. The 5G standard classifies the main services that the 5G network is serving into the following 5 type of services,
eMBB which refers to enhanced mobile broadband.
MIoT which refers to massive Internet of Things.
URLLC which refers to Ultra Reliable Low Latency communication.
V2X which refers to Vehicle to Everything communication.
HMTC which refers to High performance Machine Type Communication.
eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband)
Which allows the 5G network to provide the UEs with much faster data rates than the 4G. The 5G can provide 10 times faster data rates to the UEs, compared to 4G. Therefore, 5G can serve applications such as high definition video streaming, virtual reality, and augmented reality.
mIoT (massive IoT)
Which allows massive number of IoT devices to connect to the 5G network in the same time. IoT devices such as smart electricity meters, temperature sensors, and light sensors. 5G can have 1 million devices per every square meter. Which is much more than that was supported in 4G.
URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication)
This network slice is serving the applications that require ultra-reliable communication with ultra-low delay. Such as remote surgeries, where the doctor exists in a distant place from the hospital, and performs a surgery using a robot in the hospital to the patient. So that this applications require very reliable communication with very low delay.
V2X (Vehicle to Everything)
Vehicle to everything communication. That can serve autonomous driving, where the vehicle needs to have communication with everything around it.
HMTC (High performance machine type communication)
Where high performance communication shall take place between the machines, and the network.
Every type of the above services needs a special requirement in terms of QoS, and network architecture, that can be achieved using a separate network.
Here comes the role of 5G Network Slicing.
So that using 5G Network slicing, we can divide the physical network, into several logical networks. every logical network represents a network slice.
Each network slice is having its own characteristics that is suitable to the service, this network slice is designed to serve.