5G technology provides higher throughput, with low latency and more communication reliability, for the communication between end devices.
5G Technology - New Radio (NR)
In order for 5G technology to be able to deliver high throughout for users, it should use high frequencies in the radio interface between 5G base station, and the UE.
This is because higher frequencies, provide the capability to deliver higher throughput.
Therefore, 5G is using millimeter waves (frequency ranges around 30 GHz), in order to provide higher throughput for its users.
2G is using frequency range around 900 MHz. While 3G and 4G are using frequency ranges around 2 GHz.
But, when the frequency of the wave gets higher, its capability of propagation degrades.
In addition, as the frequency gets higher, the cell coverage of the 5G base station gets smaller. Therefore, the service provider should use some technologies in order to solve this issue. Those technologies are, massive MIMO (mMIMO), and Beam-forming.
- MIMO refers to (Multiple Input Multiple Output).
- And massive MIMO is used to increase the gain of the signal.
- This is because if you have more than one antenna, radiating the same signal, the gain of the signal will be greater, and the signal will be more concentrated.
- Beam-forming, is used to control the direction of the radiated signal.
- This is done by changing the phase shift of the signal in each of the antennas.
- This way, the provider will be able to control the direction of the signal, in order to reach the intended user.
non-Standalone (NSA) deployment of 5G
In order for the service provider to fasten the process of introducing 5G to their customers, 3GPP has identified non-Standalone (NSA) deployment of 5G.
- In this deployment model, the provider only deploys the access network of 5G, which provides the New Radio (NR) capabilities.
- Therefore it will be able to provide high throughput for the users.
- And the provider connects the access network of 5G, to the already existing core network of 4G.
- This way, the service provider will be able to introduce the high data rates of 5G to its users, without the need of immediate deployment of the 5G core network.